Patient-Specific Bone Multiscale Modelling, Fracture Simulation and Risk Analysis-A Survey.
This paper provides a starting point for researchers and practitioners of biology, medicine, physics and engineering that can benefit from a literature survey up-to-date on the modeling of patient-specific fracture, simulation and risk analysis. These surveys instructions on designing a framework for specific patient fracture simulation realistic.
This paper has 18 sections: Section 1 presents the main interested parties; Section 2 describes organzation text; Section 3 motivates further work on patient-specific simulation of fracture; Section 4 motivate this survey; Section 5 concerning the collection of bibliographic references; Section 6 motivating the physico-mathematical approach to fracture; Section 7 presents the bone modeling as a continuum; Section 8 categorize literature surveyed in the framework of continuum mechanics; Section 9 concerns computational modeling of bone geometry; Section 10 regarding the estimation of the mechanical properties of bone; Section 11 concerns the selection of the boundary conditions representative bone trauma; Section 12 concerns simulation of fracture; Section 13 gift multiscale structure of bone; Section 14 concerns the mathematical modeling of multiscale bone; Article 15 concerns the validation of experimental simulation of fracture; Section 16 concerns fracture risk assessment.
Over the past few years, have been great improvements in the study of biology and pathology of molluscs, especially in addressing the molecular patterns involved in the immune response mediated and inflammatory them. In contrast, the literature based on morphological diagnostic criteria above phenomenon still involve pathogenetic confusion and conflicting terminology.
Comparison of source bibliography, such as Brief Glossary of Terms Used in Invertebrate Pathology and the Status of National guidelines for histopathology molluscan and analysis of NOAA, it has been revealed variability in the definitions of lesions superimposable, stressed the need for further efforts in building a standard terminology and methodology in this field of study. This review suggests some possible solutions to address the use of terminology parallels in diagnosing inflammation of mollusks and also highlights the contradictory features require further discussion.
Make Queer Ontology: The Gender, Sex, Sexual Orientation and (GSSO) Ontology.
cultural attitudes, linguistic variation, and pathology of history has led to a number of terms related to gender, sex, and sexual orientation that leads to confusion and anxiety among both laymen and professionals relevant. For community members LGBTQIA +, negative reaction is exacerbated by identity historically and contemporarily been persecuted by the medical professionals.
In an effort to provide a reliable resource for patients and physicians, we have created the Gender, Sex, and Sexual Orientation (GSSO) ontology, which currently includes more than 4,000 entities from various disciplines. The GSSO are resources manually curated utilize related glossary of study biology, medicine, psychology, sociology, and gender. With links to more than 20 other such source ontology and MedDRA SNOMED-CT, which GSSO aims for accessibility and interoperability with existing systems. It is also open source and web-interface features easy to use. Future work involving multiple language support efforts and empirical evaluation.Connection error.
Physical and functional basic unit of heredity; consisting of DNA, they act as instructions for making proteins. There are approximately 20,000-25,000 genes in humans, the size of which varies from a few hundred DNA bases to more than 2 million bases. Most genes are the same in all people; less than 1% different. Everyone has two copies of each gene, one inherited from each parent. Each chromosome contains many genes.