Cancer risk and the complexity of the interactions between environmental and host factors: HENVINET interactive diagrams as simple tools for exploring and understanding the scientific evidence.

BACKGROUND
The development of graphical / visual presentation of the etiology of cancer caused by environmental stress is a process that requires incorporating biological interactions complex between xenobiotics in living and working environment with the gene (gene-environment interactions) and the mechanisms of certain diseases based on genomic and non-genomic in life organism. Traditionally, presentation causal relationships including statistical association between exposure to a xenobiotic and diseases corrected for the effect of potential confounders.


METHOD
In HENVINET FP6 project, we aim to consider the agent together all the known and the mechanisms involved in the development of selected types of cancer. Selection of the type of cancer to the causal diagram based on the corpus of data available and reported relative risk (RR). In establishing a causal diagram complexity of interactions between xenobiotics considered as a priority in the interpretation of the risk of cancer. In addition, gene-environment interactions such as polymorphism gene inserted to repair and Phase I and II enzymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics and their elimination. Information about the possibility of age or gender vulnerability is also included.

Diagram user friendly thanks to access to the stage for an information packet and referring to the relevant literature and a glossary of terms. Diagram cover both the chemical and physical agents (ionizing and non-ionizing radiation) and provide basic information about the strength of the relationship between the types of exposures and cancer risk were reported by human studies and is supported by mechanistic studies. Causal diagram HENVINET developed in the project is a valuable source of information for professionals working in the field of environmental health and epidemiology, and as an educational material for students.

 Cancer risk and the complexity of the interactions between environmental and host factors: HENVINET interactive diagrams as simple tools for exploring and understanding the scientific evidence.
Cancer risk and the complexity of the interactions between environmental and host factors: HENVINET interactive diagrams as simple tools for exploring and understanding the scientific evidence.


BACKGROUND
Cancer risk results from a complex interaction of environmental exposure with polymorphisms of genes are inherited, genetic load collected during development and capacity non-genomic response to environmental insults. In order to adopt preventive measures are effective and relevant regulatory measures, a comprehensive investigation of the etiology of cancer is very important. Variations and fluctuations in the incidence of cancer in the human population does not reflect the policy of environmental pollution or population distribution of genetic polymorphisms known to be associated with an increased risk of cancer.

Tools that can be used in such comprehensive research, including molecular biology applied to field studies, requires a shift methodological reductionism that has been used until recently as a basic axiom in the interpretation of data. The complexity of interactions between cells, genes and environment, the resonance of living matter with the environment, can be synthesized by biological systems. In the philosophy HENVINET project followed in order to develop interactive causal diagram for cancer investigation with a possible etiology in environmental exposures.

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RESULTS
causal diagram representing knowledge and tools integrated seed for their future development and the development of a similar diagram for other environment-related diseases such as asthma or infertility. In this paper the development and implementation of a causal diagram for cancer are presented and discussed.