A brief etymology of the collateral circulation.

It is also known that the protective capacity of collateral circulation falls short in many individuals with ischemic heart disease, brain and lower extremities. In the last 15 years, the opportunities created by molecular and genetic tools, together with disappointing results in many angiogenic trials, has led to a significant increase in the number of studies that focus on: understanding the basic biology of collateral circulation; identify the mechanisms that limit the capacity of collateral circulation in many individuals; formulate a method to measure the extent of collateral, which has been found to vary between individuals; and develop treatments to improve collateral blood flow in obstructive disease.

Unfortunately, accompanying this improvement has been a proliferation in the report vague term used to describe the unique circulation disposition and behavior, as well as the increasing abuse of a good shelter by the new (and old) students of collateral circulation. With this in mind, we provide a brief glossary of terms easily understood to indicate the formation, growth of adaptive and maladaptive refinement of collateral circulation.

We also propose terminology for some of the newly discovered process that occurs in the collateral circulation. Finally, we include a term used to describe a ship which is sometimes confused with the collateral, as well as terms describing an active process of arterial-venous circulation general when the conditions involving ischemic collateral circulation. We hope this brief review will help unify the terminology used in the study of collateral. Australia book lice by F.H.S. Roberts (1970) is a land-mark in Australia tick biology. But it is time for a new book and improved the lice from Australia.

This book has a guide to the identification and account of the biology and diseases associated with 16 species of lice that may take domestic animals and humans in Australia. This consists of five argasid (soft) tick: Argas persicus (fowl tick), Argas robertsi (Robert bird tick), Ornithodoros capensis (soft tick sea birds), O. gurneyi (kangaroo soft tick), Otobius megnini (spinose ear tick) ; and 11 ixodid (hard) ticks, Amblyomma triguttatum (kangaroo ornaments tick), Bothriocroton auruginans (wombat tick)

 A brief etymology of the collateral circulation.
A brief etymology of the collateral circulation.

ADReCS: ontology database to help standardize and hierarchical classification of terms of adverse drug reactions.

Adverse drug reaction (ADR) is a dangerous and unpredictable effects during normal drug therapy. They have caused a significant clinical burden and has been responsible for most of the failure of the development of new drugs. understanding the molecular and in silico drug evaluation (or candidate) safety in the laboratory and is therefore highly desirable, and unfortunately largely been eclipsed by the misuse of the term ADR.

The growing impact of bioinformatics and systems biology in toxicological studies also require special ADR-term system that works beyond simple glossary. Adverse Drug Reaction Classification System is a comprehensive database of ADR ontology that provides not only standardization but also hierarchical classification ADR ADR term.

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ADR term pre-assigned with a unique digital ID and at the same time are also arranged in a hierarchical tree ADR four levels to build relationships ADR-ADR. Currently, the database includes the standard 6544 and 34 796 ADR terms synonymously. It also combines information from a single 1355 134 022 drug active ingredient and drug-ADR pairs. In short, ADReCS offers opportunity for direct calculation in terms of ADR and also provides instructions for common features underlying mining ADR.