Of what use is connectomics? A personal perspective on the Drosophila connectome.
The brain is a network of neurons and the output is the biological behavior. This is an interesting age, with a growing recognition that a comprehensive compilation of synaptic circuits in the brains reconstructed solid model species now both technologically feasible and scientific possibilities allows in neurobiology, as many as 30 years ago genomics in molecular biology and genetics.
Implemented by major advances in electron microscope technology, primarily focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM) milling (see Glossary), image capture and alignment, and the reconstruction of computer aided morphology of neurons, great progress has been made in the last decade in detailed knowledge of the actual synaptic circuit formed by real neurons, in various brain regions fly Drosophila it is useful to distinguish a large synaptic pathways, with 100 or more presynaptic contacts, of them are small, with less than about 10; Most neurites both presynaptic and postsynaptic, and all synaptic sites have some postsynaptic dendrites.
Drosophila has pioneered work in progress because the number of cells administered, and the class of discrete neurons morphologically and genetically identified, many confirmed by journalists. The latest advances are destined in the next few years to reveal the full connectome in an adult flies, parallel progress in the larval brain which offer the same prospect might be in a shorter period of time.
Final changes and validation segmented bodies with evidence of human-reader remains the most time-consuming step, however. The value of the full connectome in Drosophila is that, by targeting neurons for specific transgene either stationary or morphology identified to enable the circuit, and then identify the resulting behavioral outcomes, we can determine the causal mechanism for the behavior of the loss or gain. More importantly, connectome express lanes hitherto unexpected, leads us to look for this new behavior.
Circuit information eventually will be necessary to understand how the difference between the underlying brain differences in behavior, and especially for connectomic strategy herald yet more sophisticated vertebrate brains, with the prospect of finally understanding the cognitive problems have connectomic basis. Connectomes also helps us to identify common synaptic circuits in the different species and thus to reveal the evolution in the path candidate.
The basic concept of the Related Molecular Biology Genetics and epigenetics.
The observation that “one size does not fit all” for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease, among other ailments, has been pushing the concept of precision medicine. The goal of treatment is to provide the precision of the best-targeted interventions tailored to the individual genome.
The human genome sequence is composed of billions of agreements containing a code that controls how genes are expressed. This code depends on other nonstatic regulator that surround DNA and the epigenome. In addition, environmental factors also play an important role in the regulation of this complex. This review provides a general perspective on the basic concepts of molecular biology related to genetics and epigenetics and a list of key terms.Connection error.
Some examples are given polymorphism and genetic risk score associated with cardiovascular risk.Likewise, presented an overview of the major epigenetic regulators, including the methylation of DNA, proteins methylcytosine-phosphate-guanine-binding, histone modifications, other histone regulation, micro-RNA effects, and regulators appear additional.